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Table 1: Permeation resistance of glove materials to SKYDROL LD-4

Glove Tested Mean Thickness (mm) Mean Breakthrough Time ± One Standard Deviation
(minutes)
Mean Permeation Rate ± One Standard Deviation (µg/cm2/min.)
Neoprene-Edmont
Model 29-865
0.43 325 ± 38 74.4 ± 26.4
Nitrile-Pioneer Stansolv
Model AF18

0.46

No breakthrough in 8 hours No permeation
Latex-Edmont
Model 46-710

0.20

300 ± 113

46.8 ± 3.6
Latex-Marigold

0.61

285 ± 37

64.8 ± 19.8

*  Results were provided by Ansell Edmont using a total testing period of four hours.
**  Results were provided by MAPA Professional using a testing temperature of 27 °C.

The data set forth in the table above are based on samples tested and are not guaranteed for all samples or applications.

Fluid Stability

Fluid stability affects total system perform- ance including reliability and overall operational costs. Other hydraulic fluid properties, such as lubricating ability and corrosive tendencies, are also major factors in determining fluid performance.

Thermal stability is concerned with changes in the fluid and with its reactions with the environment caused by thermal stress. The changes that can occur include (1) increase or decrease in viscosity, (2) for- mation of corrosive products such as acid, (3) generation of insoluble material and (4) formation of volatile products. Since aircraft hydraulic fluids can be exposed to air or to moisture, oxidative and hydrolytic reactions of the fluid can take place, hence, air and water contamination should be minimized. In the presence of air and/or water, the fluid degradation rate observed by heat alone is accelerated.

Fluid stability can be measured in the labo- ratory under a variety of conditions. However, the test results must be confirmed by pump and rig tests simulating aircraft hydraulic sys- tems and, finally, in actual service in aircraft.

One of the more useful stability tests involves heating the fluid at a constant temperature in a stainless steel container. The container is partially filled with fluid containing predetermined water contamina- tion levels. Various metal specimens are added to simulate an aircraft hydraulic system environment. The container is sealed with air present and the test started. At the end of the test, the metal specimens are examined for corrosion. The fluid is analyzed for acidity and other properties related to fluid degradation at intervals during the test. Figure 1 (below) provides details of Skydrol LD-4 fluid life at various temperatures and water contents. Fluid life is defined as the time required for fluid neutralization number to reach a value of 1.5, which is the limit set by most airframe manufacturers. These data demonstrate the excellent thermal stability of Skydrol LD-4. Note that small increases in water content have a significant effect on fluid stability. Introduction of air has also been shown to have a detrimental effect on fluid life.

The stability characteristics of Skydrol fluids are also shown by tests specified by AS1241 and airframe manufacturer specifications. The “Corrosion Hydrolytic and Oxidation Stability Test” procedure exposes the fluid to various metals at 180 °F (82 °C) and 0.8% water for 168 hours, while the “Thermal Stability Test” procedure exposes fluid to various metals at 250 °F (121 °C) for 168 hours with no water added. Skydrol LD-4 and Skydrol 500B-4 easily pass metal weight-loss limits while showing essentially no increase in neutraliza- tion number and no buildup of deposits.

Skydrol hydraulic fluids are stable under the conditions of use as demonstrated by years of successful operation in airline service. In an aircraft hydraulic system, the upper temperature limit for continuous operation for Skydrol 500B-4 and Skydrol LD-4 fluids is 225 °F (107 °C). Portions of the system can operate for a short period of time at slightly higher temperatures without rapid deterioration of the fluids. Note from Figure 1 that at 300 °F (149 °C) the expected
fluid life is only 100-200 hours.


 Download MSDS SkyDrol LD-4
 Product Highlight Skydrol / SkyKleen / MCS 352B
 Technical Bulletin
* Materials Compatibility
* Fluid In-Service Quality Limits
* Shelf Life, Storage and Handling
* Safety and Emergency Procedures
* Fluid Performance
* Permeation Testing
* Factors Affecting Glove Selection Permeation
* Heaiht & Safety

Skydrol® fire resistant hydraulic fluids may cause intense pain on exposure to the eye and its associated membranes. Despite the pain they may cause, toxicological testing and our experience both indicate that Skydrol fluids do not damage the eye.

Skydrol LD-4
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